Healthy Insights

Dosage Matters July 09 2018

Customized to fit the individual needs of your body

There no such thing as a “one-size-fits-all” solution for weight loss, because different people have different needs. 1

But more importantly: even the needs of your individual body will be different on different days. And they’ll change at different times of the day. And as you get closer to your weight loss goal, your body’s needs will continue to change.

In other words, “one-size-fits-all” doesn’t even fit the same person from day to day.

With Marz Sprays you have a highly flexible, customizable “toolbox” to give your body what it needs, and when it needs it – no matter how much those needs change hour by hour and day by day. And unlike pills, designed to be taken once or twice a day – and which have low absorption if they dissolve at all2,3Marz Sprays delivers high-potency, high-absorption nutritional support exactly when you need it.

If you’ve tried losing weight before, you know the roller coaster ride. Sometimes you’ll feel tired and sluggish and in need an energy boost. Often you’ll struggle with hunger pangs and food cravings. You will probably experience mood swings, feeling cranky and irritable. You may feel sick and nauseous. You might feel depressed and down in the dumps. And when you’re hungry, you’re likely to crave the absolute worst foods – high-calorie, high-carbohydrate processed foods.

To meet these challenges head-on you need support systems that are highly-targeted, fast-acting, and can be adjusted to give you the right dosage at the right time.

Marz Sprays gives you the dosage control to address each challenge head-on. The right amount at the right time.

 

 


 

1. Martinez J, Navas-Carretero S, Saris W, Astrup A. Personalized weight loss strategies – the role of macronutrient distribution. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10(12):749-760. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.175.

2. Cnn.com. How crash diets harm your health - CNN.com. 2014. Available at: http://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/04/20/crash.diets.harm.health/index.html. Accessed December 15, 2014.

3. Boschmann M, Steiniger J, Hille U et al. Water-Induced Thermogenesis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2003;88(12):6015-6019. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-030780.


The Problem With Nutritional Panels July 09 2018

Nutritional panels are notoriously inaccurate. One reason the information displayed cannot be trusted is because compliance is lax. The FDA permits a 20% margin of error in labeling – for example, a nutrition label that says 200 calories may actually contain anywhere from 160 to 240 calories and still be FDA-compliant1

But the real reason to stop trusting nutritional panels is that the information they present is inherently misleading. Nutritional panels use an outdated system devised in the 19th century that treats different foods as if they’re the same: 9 calories for every gram of fat, 4 calories for every gram of carbohydrates, and 4 calories for every gram of protein. 2

But all foods are not equal. 3 Not only is a gram of carrots not the same as a gram of potatoes, but a cooked potato is not the same as a raw potato because cooked foods generally provide more calories than raw food. 18 Scientific studies back this up - studies on mice show that eating raw sweet potatoes results in weight loss, while eating cooked sweet potatoes results in weight gain. Similarly, eating cooked meat causes greater weight gain than eating raw meat. 2

Cooking foods breaks them down, making them easier to digest. The more a food is cooked and processed, the more calories it’s likely to provide. And foods more difficult enough to digest (like nuts) don’t release all of their calories. Even the type of bacteria in your gut affects how many calories and nutrients you absorb. 2

And the most important the thing to know about any food is never included on any nutritional panel:

How much will your body actually absorb?

 

 


 

1. US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: Nutrition Labeling Manual - A Guide for Developing and Using Data Bases. 2014. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm063113.htm. Accessed December 18, 2014.

2. Dunn R. Science Reveals Why Calorie Counts Are All Wrong. Scientific American. 2013;(Volume 309, Issue 3).

3. Martinez J, Navas-Carretero S, Saris W, Astrup A. Personalized weight loss strategies – the role of macronutrient distribution. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10(12):749-760. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.175.


Absorption Matters July 09 2018

We just learned that nutritional panels are inaccurate because they fail to account for food variances, processing and cooking, the chemistry and mechanics of digestion, food interactions, and even the billions of bacteria living in your gut.

All of this can be summed up in a single word: absorption. There’s an old saying that you are what you eat. But actually, the truth is: You are what you absorb.

No matter what you eat, if it’s not absorbed, it’s not doing you any harm – or any good. This fundamental fact is a cornerstone of Marz Sprays’ revolutionary oral sprays. Medical weight loss patients need the best support to achieve their weight loss goals. And the best solution to the absorption problem can be seen in the chart on the right: oral sprays.

But the story doesn't end there. Pills provide only about 10% absorption if they dissolve at all... which brings us to one of the secrets about the drug and supplement industries.

 


The Dirty Little Secret of the Drug and Supplements Industries July 09 2018

 

The tablets, capsules, and pills manufactured by pharmaceutical and nutraceutical companies are supposed to disintegrate so your body can use the active ingredients. But scientific studies have shown that more than half of tablets and capsules do not disintegrate. 1

Why not? These pill companies add excipients and fillers to their products – they are the “glue” which binds together and stabilizes the pill. Historically these glues have been considered inert and without any medicinal benefit – but they influence your body’s ability to use the active ingredients.

Undissolved Pills Can Clog You Up

Noted lecturer and neurologist Dr. David Friedman reports the story of a patient who had to have her septic tank repaired. The tank was clogged with hundreds of undigested vitamin pills – some with the brand names still readable!2

An X-ray taken by the highly respected Mayo Clinic tells a similar story. A woman checked into the hospital complaining of abdominal pain. At first her doctors believed the problem was gallstones – but x-rays showed fifty undissolved pills in the woman’s abdomen. 3

Even “all natural” pills often use fillers, binders and adhesive agents that can inhibit absorption. And even if the pill you’re taking actually disintegrates, these fillers can interfere with your body’s ability to utilize the active ingredients. 4 And if a pill doesn’t disintegrate, its benefit to you is zero.

And as you already learned, even when pills dissolve your body may absorb only 10% of the nutrients! 23 The rest simply passes right through your body.

That means that for every $100 you spend on pills, you are flushing up to $90 down the toilet – literally!

 

 


 

1. Löbenberg R, Steinke W. Investigation of vitamin and mineral tablets and capsules on the Canadian market. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2006;9(1):40-49.

2. Friedman D. Liquid Vitamins: The Wave of the Future. Chiropractic Economics Magazine. 1998:36,38,40-41.

3. Florez M, Evans J, Daly T. The Radiodensity of Medications Seen on X-ray Films. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1998;73(6):516-519. doi:10.4065/73.6.516.

4. Jackson K, Young D, Pant S. Drug-excipient interactions and their affect on absorption. Pharmaceutical Science & Technology Today. 2000;3(10):336-345. doi:10.1016/s1461-5347(00)00301-1.


Sleep is Critical for your Well Being and Brain May 06 2018

We have known for years how important sleep is, but new studies are coming out proving it.  As it turns out, Sleep is not only important for your immune system, but also lack of sleep can contribute to weight gain.  Previous research has shown that our metabolism is negatively affected by sleep loss,' said Jonathan Cedernaes, lead author and a researcher at Uppsala University.  Sleep loss has also been linked to an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Just ONE night of bad sleep can alter your genes: Pulling an all-nighter damages the DNA in our biological clocks, claims study.  Wow, this just shows how important sleep is each and every night.  Many people have a difficult time falling asleep and staying asleep.  It is so important to sleep the entire night without disruption.

No one knows why we sleep, but studies suggest we need six to eight hours of shut-eye each night. Unfortunately, only about 30% of us are getting it. That means 70 million Americans suffer from lack of sleep or some form of sleep deprivation.  According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, lack of sleep is a Certified Health Epidemic.

Sleep deprivation takes an enormous toll on our bodies, including bloodshot eyes, increased blood pressure and a fuller waistline. But what’s equally alarming is the negative impact of sleep deprivation on the brain.

The above infographic is taken from MIC and it explains what happens to your brain, and what it means for you, when you don’t get enough sleep.

 


The Power of Less Caffeine and More B-12 May 01 2018

Chances are that if you’re 9-to-5 grindin’, you’re doing another type of grindin’ -- coffee bean grindin’, that is! Statistics suggest that as many as 83% of adult Americans drink coffee, which is no wonder. Whether sipped from a foam Dunkin Donuts’ cup or from an exorbitantly frothy almond-hazelnut-tiramisu-mocha concoction, all coffee has that the same magic ingredient: caffeine.

Ah, caffeine. Sweet, precious, life-giving caffeine; on some days, it truly is an elixir, akin a special button that we can press to instantly put ourselves into “GO” mode.

Unfortunately, like most good things in life, caffeine has its darker side. All of us have experienced some of the nastier side effects: the slack-jawed 3PM slump, the pounding headache, an irregular heartbeat, lingering anxiety and general restlessness.

YIKES, huh? That doesn’t even include the long-term consequences, which includes all sorts of fun things – depression, insomnia, inconsistent blood pressure, addiction, to name a few.

DOUBLE YIKES. Alas, you might read the above paragraph and think to yourself “Hmm, maybe I should start drinking less coffee,” but let’s face it – once 8AM hits on Monday morning, we’re all in the same boat. All bets are off, and whoever stands between us and the closest Starbucks is a dead man, cue finger-across-the-throat motion here.

Usually a tea drinker, lately, I found myself opting for coffee with alarming frequency. Not just in the morning either, but often for an afternoon boost and even sometimes in the evening. Although, yes, it definitely helped me power through some absurdly long workdays, I was starting to notice the impact. Some mornings, I would wake up more exhausted than when I’d gone to bed. Other days, I would shake my knees incessantly during phone calls and meetings, jittery and unable to focus. Nights occasionally found me lying awake in bed, staring at the ceiling and cursing the black devil’s brew.

As with most things in life, I turned to the almighty Google searching for answers and alternatives. The thing that came up consistently as another option to the almighty joe: vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is found naturally in various animal-based foods, including eggs, fish, meat and dairy. It’s essential to the workings of your nervous system and brain activity, helps process glucose, and regulates your natural circadian rhythms, all accounting for increased levels of energy and alertness.

Nevertheless, the Internet has deceived and betrayed me countless times, so, to corroborate, I decided to a short trial run replacing my daily caffeine intake with a vitamin B12 supplement. Here’s how it went:

Day 1

I wake up around 8AM after around 6 1/2 hours of sleep. I sit down at my laptop to work about an hour later, still bleary-eyed, and take my first vitamin B12 supplement with a light breakfast.

Within about 45 minutes, I feel better. Unlike coffee’s instantaneous jolt, vitamin B12 provides a subtler, sustained feeling. I don’t really notice any influence on productivity, but the elevated alertness and clarity is taking the front seat here – I’m bright-eyed and bushy-tailed for a good four to five hours.

Afterwards, I’m not drained, like I would be with caffeine. I’m back to a baseline “normal” and can finish up the workday without the need for any additional boost. I sleep soundly around midnight.

Day 2

I open my eyes earlier than usual, at around 6AM. After a brief debate (Bed! So comfy!) I decide I’m awake enough to go about my day, despite the ungodly hour. (Turns out Vitamin B12 also aids in releasing melatonin and increases sensitivity to light, which accounts for both a restful sleep and natural awakening!)

I take the supplement around 8AM. The results are similar to the first day, a nice, clear-headed buzz. This time, I also notice that my mood is more upbeat, although I do find myself feeling slightly more antsy than yesterday. Regardless, I feel good and power through without any other negative side effects.

Day 3

Much like the previous day, I sleep like a rock and greet the day without any of the usual histrionic wailings (suffice to say, I’m not a morning person). There’s not much new to report in terms of the third day – once again,I take the B12 between 8-9AM and enjoy its effects for several hours.

With that said, it does feel slightly shorter in duration, and by mid-afternoon I start craving a nice steaming mug of green tea. I mean, what better way to celebrate my three-day sabbatical from caffeine, right? Right?! OK, OK... I continue in my saint-like abstinence and ride it out until the following morning.

The next day, I mull over my experiment with a well-deserved cup of tea. I won’t lie – it is nice to get some caffeine flowing through the veins. But it’s comforting to know that it isn’t an outright necessity and can be regaled to a pleasant morning ritual. Although nowhere near the intensity of, say, a double espresso shot, the effects of a vitamin B12 supplement provide adequate energy to give a nice bounce and flow to the day, without having to deal with a mid-day crash.

Of course, results may vary. In researching, we found out some people actually get sleepier in response to vitamin B12 and obviously, a three-day stint isn’t enough to fully measure the effects of long-term intake. If you’re a 5-cups-a-day type, you also may be prone to traditional caffeine withdrawal symptoms, which can be brutal… like “I’m going to shank everyone on the cell block” brutal. Do research on the appropriate dosage and gauge your moods and body as you wean yourself.

I’m not giving up my daily cuppa just yet, but vitamin B12’s effects on my mood and productivity is a good enough reason for me to incorporate it regularly into my diet, whether as a supplement or replacement for caffeine. Coupled with other lifestyle tweaks (getting enough sleep, exercising regularly, staying hydrated), one day, hey, one day, a completely caffeine-free lifestyle might be within reach. Until then, as all things, enjoy in moderation and in wellness.

 


Restless Sleep and Weight Gain April 01 2018

Hey, you! Yeah, you, person reading this hunched over his computer at 3AM: get off the computer and go to bed, you silly night owl! (Note: For all you people reading this during normal-people hours, the above statement doesn’t apply to you. Keep reading anyways, because some knowledge is about to get dropped.)

Most people don’t need a scientific study to know that lack of sufficient, restful sleep has a number of negative consequences -- increased irritability and stress, dulled reaction times, higher sensitivity to illness, and so on.

Here’s something you might not know: it’s making you fat. In fact, if we want to get specific, not only is it making you fat, but it’s also making you more susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic disease, obesity, diabetes, and God knows what else. Really, that list alone should be sufficient to scare you into your pajamas.

Here’s the science behind it:

Let’s say you get a full night’s rest. During that night, your body produces leptin, a hormone that tells your body it’s in a state of relaxation, minimal energy is being spent, and there’s no need to search for calories. Throughout the course of your restful sleep cycle, another hormone called ghrelin is produced and properly regulated. You wake up, refreshed and ready to go.

In the alternate scenario, you toss and turn until 4 in the morning, unable to sleep. You produce inadequate leptin, signaling to the body that it needs energy ASAP. To compensate, your body goes haywire and decides to overcompensate with ghrelin. A ghrelin buffet -- an embarrassment of ghrelin, if you will.

Fun fact about ghrelin: it signals to your body when it needs more energy (i.e. calories). Too much of it and you feel like you could eat a horse.

Ah, science.

This really shouldn’t come as a surprise. Our bodies are incredibly complex, interdependent ecosystems, and every aspect of our health, whether it’s sleep, diet, exercise, or mental well-being, has been shown, time and time again, to feed into each other. Somehow, though, prioritizing sleep seems to fall on the bottom of list when we’re crossing off the checklist to the Newer, Healthier You.

Here are some tips to make sure you get to bed on-time and get amazing sleep, leaving you bright-eyed, bushy-tailed and (mostly) ghrelin-free in the morning.

  • Set an alarm for 30 minutes before your desired bedtime. Use this trigger to force yourself into getting ready for bed at an appropriate time -- even when there’s half a season of House of Cards left waiting in your Netflix queue.
  • Have rituals centered around going to bed. Sip a cup of chamomile tea, take a hot shower, curl into bed with a book. Whatever it is, do it consistently. Every day. In the same order, if possible. Eventually, these actions will signal to your body that it’s time to settle into dreamland and you’ll naturally start getting sleepy. 
  • Make your bed your sanctuary. In the same vein as the above, if all you associate with your bed is sleep, then your body will naturally understand that when you climb into bed, it’s time to sleep. Simple as that. 
  • Exercise, preferably in the day. 
  • Avoid using electronic devices for at least 30 minutes before you go to bed, ideally for longer. No, a quick scan of Facebook before bed isn’t going to kill you, but the blue light emitted by your device screens is shown to suppress natural melatonin production -- which means you’re more likely to wake up tired and cranky. If it’s completely unavoidable, install an application that tempers or blocks this blue light, such as F.lux. 
  • If you’re the type of person that stays up tossing and turning or you’re still getting adjusted to a regular sleep schedule, consider taking melatonin supplements. Melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone, which helps regulate our sleep and wake cycles. (We do not recommend taking melatonin for regular long-term use. There’s a chance it could affect your body’s natural melatonin production, and no formal studies have been conducted showing the potential effects of sustained usage.)
  • Last but not least—in the words of a wise children’s book author Adam Mansbach, go the (bleep) to sleep. Sweet dreams.

Shark Tank March 31 2018

Being Selected. Just getting this far felt like a big win!

When we sent our video to Shark Tank we really didn't know what to expect. When we were contacted and told we were selected to potentially be in front of the Sharks we were absolutely shocked! Of course we love our business and products, and to have the chance to make the world aware of them seemed like a truly business-changing opportunity. What we didn’t know was that we were ultimately selected out of over 30,000 applicants who all wanted what we did:  a chance to tell our story, our vision and how we will become the leader in Oral Sprays.

Hurry up and Wait. A roller coaster of a day!

The day of filming was long - no, make that extremely long! We arrived at the studio at 6:30am ready-to-film in suits and ties, full of anticipation to tell the Sharks our story. Nearly 11 hours later we continued to wait. For 11 hours we waited and waited and waited some more until finally it was our turn. The day was getting late and the producers warned us that given how late the day was running we might have to come back later. Imagine waiting for nearly 11 hours and then finding out you might not film. Really??? Finally, after being told multiple times we may or may not film we ended up going into the ultimate battle.

The Battle Field. Nonstop action in The Tank!

When we entered The Tank there were no formal introductions to the Sharks - we were just put out there and told to begin presenting. What you see on TV is only a small portion of the entire presentation and negotiations. For example, our negotiation was 48 minutes long, and not a dull moment in any one of those minutes. As soon as we finished our pitch the Sharks were hungry and started asking questions like a firing squad. It was one after another after another to the point where we couldn’t please anyone without offending someone else. Finally, after a long and grueling battle, two of the Sharks expressed a lot of interest.

  • Daymond John said he was out because he didn’t know much about the industry.  We felt this was reasonable and understandable.
  • Robert Herjavec suggested he preferred to get all his nutrients from his diet. We agree that a balanced diet is a healthy approach, but many people don’t get all their nutrients that way. In fact, even those that do have very healthy diets can still benefit from oral spray absorption of water soluble vitamins such as Vitamin C.
  • Mark Cuban was a bit moody that day and stated that he felt the entire supplement industry is a scam and that many pills and capsules that do not disintegrate.  But this is one of the key advantages of Marz Sprays! Instead of wondering if your pill is going to disintegrate, Marz Sprays are ready for rapid absorption!
  • Kevin O’Leary and Lori Greiner both loved the unique delivery system we offer, recognized the opportunity and size of our markets, and got into a bidding war back and forth.

Ultimately, we partnered with Lori Greiner. She is a wonderful partner who helped gain us retail traction. And her book not only helps entrepreneurs learn about building businesses, but more importantly she discusses her enthusiasm for Marz Sprays!!!

We were fortunate to be featured after our incredible retail success on SharkTank for a follow-up episode which aired in April 2014.

 


Need Sleep? Who doesn't? February 14 2018

Why Is Sleep Health Important?

Sleep, like nutrition and physical activity, is a critical determinant of health and well-being. Sleep is a basic requirement for infant, child, and adolescent health and development. Sleep loss and untreated sleep disorders influence basic patterns of behavior that negatively affect family health and interpersonal relationships. Fatigue and sleepiness can reduce productivity and increase the chance for mishaps such as medical errors and motor vehicle or industrial accidents.

Go ahead, snooze!

Sleep makes you feel better, but its importance goes way beyond just boosting your mood or banishing under-eye circles. Adequate sleep is a key part of a healthy lifestyle, and can benefit your heart, weight, mind, and more.

Adequate sleep is necessary to:

  • Fight off infection
  • Support the metabolism of sugar to prevent diabetes
  • Perform well in school
  • Work effectively and safely

Try Sleep Spray for a great nights sleep!


Sleep: Your Secret Weapon for Weight Loss February 01 2018

If you are serious about losing weight, you must get high-quality, restorative sleep.  Sound simple? It’s serious and it’s easy to overlook. Do not dismiss this. Too many people deprive themselves of sleep on a regular basis and destroy their ability to lose weight.

When you’re sleep deprived your body simply cannot burn fat and lose weight efficiently. Sleep deprivation depresses your metabolism, increases food intake, and tells your body to store fat. 1-11 Scientific research shows that people who struggle with poor sleep are much more likely to have “major weight gain”. 10

Poor sleep wreaks havoc on your system causing multiple, cascading problems:

  • Slower Metabolism11  

    Lack of sleep depresses your metabolism by as much as 20% – undermining your body’s ability to burn fat and lose weight.

  • Hungrier, More Snacking4,5

    Your hormones are thrown out-of-balance: ghrelin skyrockets, stimulating appetite, while leptin plummets, telling your body you’re not full. A recipe for disaster.

  • Higher Carbs & Fat4

    Sleep not only makes you eat more, it also results in a stronger predisposition for foods rich in fat and carbohydrates.

  • Less Exercise3, 6

    Not enough sleep results in less exercise and an overall drop in physical movement. Your body begins to conserve energy, destroying your weight loss goals.

  • Retain More Fat9

    People who get more sleep burn fat much more efficiently. Research shows that the sleep-deprived burn 55% less fat than the well-rested.

  • Fatter as an Adult3, 6

    Not getting enough sleep as a child can increase the risk for obesity by nearly double. Some studies show that children are 9% more likely to become obese for every hour of nightly sleep deprivation.

You must protect your sleep because your sleep protects your ability to lose weight - which in turn protects your health. And sleeping well doesn’t happen by accident. You decide to do it. You take the risks of not sleeping well seriously. You treat sleep as a priority in your life.

 

References:

1. Harvard School of Public Health: Obesity Prevention Source. Sleep. 2012. Available at: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-causes/sleep-and-obesity/. Accessed December 18, 2014.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Features - Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Epidemic. Cdcgov. 2014. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/features/dssleep/. Accessed December 15, 2014.

3. Patel S, Hu F. Short Sleep Duration and Weight Gain: A Systematic Review. Obesity. 2008;16(3):643-653. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.118.

4. Spiegel K. Brief Communication: Sleep Curtailment in Healthy Young Men Is Associated with Decreased Leptin Levels, Elevated Ghrelin Levels, and Increased Hunger and Appetite. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2004;141(11):846. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-141-11-200412070-00008.

5. SCHMID S, HALLSCHMID M, JAUCH-CHARA K, BORN J, SCHULTES B. A single night of sleep deprivation increases ghrelin levels and feelings of hunger in normal-weight healthy men. Journal of Sleep Research. 2008;17(3):331-334. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00662.x.

6. Gupta N, Mueller W, Chan W, Meininger J. Is obesity associated with poor sleep quality in adolescents?. American Journal of Human Biology. 2002;14(6):762-768. doi:10.1002/ajhb.10093.

7. Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index. Plos Med. 2004;1(3):e62. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010062.

8. Kohatsu N. Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index in a Rural Population. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2006;166(16):1701. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.16.1701.

9. Nedeltcheva A, Kilkus J, Imperial J, Schoeller D, Penev P. Insufficient Sleep Undermines Dietary Efforts to Reduce Adiposity. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2010;153(7):435. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-153-7-201010050-00006.

10. Lyytikäinen P, Lallukka T, Lahelma E, Rahkonen O. Sleep problems and major weight gain: a follow-up study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2010;35(1):109-114. doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.113.

11. Benedict C, Hallschmid M, Lassen A et al. Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011;93(6):1229-1236. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.006460.